社会科学のメソドロジー

第29回全所的プロジェクト(社会科学のメソドロジー)ワークショップのお知らせ

報告者Jaemin Shim [the Department of Government and International Studies (GIS), Hong Kong Baptist University]

報告題目:Gender and Politics and Representation Paradox: Representing Women and Facing Electoral Disadvantage?

日時:2024年5月29日(水)15:30~17:00

場所:東京大学本郷キャンパス社会科学研究所1F 第二会議室(104号室)
   https://www.iss.u-tokyo.ac.jp/guide/

言語:英語

開催形式:対面

対象:一般公開

報告要旨: In the past several decades, the overall proportion of women in parliaments worldwide has increased substantially, and global-level empirical evidence has demonstrated that greater proportions of women in the legislature lead to more promotion of women's issues, e.g. increased maternity leave, women's career advancement, domestic violence reduction, or abortion rights. Clear benefits offered to women voters notwithstanding, we know little about the relationship between female legislators' promotion of women's issues and its career consequences. To fill this gap, using mixed methods, the project investigates to what degree and through what mechanisms female legislators face electoral disadvantages when they support issues concerning women voters; moreover, it also examines how the policy-career trade-offs pertinent to women's issues differ between legislators elected in districts and those elected through party lists. The project focuses on two under-explored countries in the literature on gender politics--South Korea and Taiwan--and examines the period between 2004 and 2023.

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第30回全所的プロジェクト(社会科学のメソドロジー)ワークショップのお知らせ

報告者Elvin Ong [Assistant Professor of Political Science at National University of Singapore, Visiting scholar in the Institute of Social Science, the University of Tokyo]

報告題目:Unexpected Handcuffs: How Open Bargains in Opposition Pre-Electoral Alliances Promote Political Instability and Authoritarian Comebacks

日時:2024年5月30日(木)10:30~12:00

場所:東京大学本郷キャンパス社会科学研究所1F 第二会議室(104号室)
   https://www.iss.u-tokyo.ac.jp/guide/

言語:英語

開催形式:対面

対象:一般公開

司会:東島雅昌(東京大学社会科学研究所)

報告要旨:Recent analyses of democratization have overwhelmingly focused on how autocratic incumbents and legacies shape democratization's trajectory after electoral turnovers. What about the role of opposition parties after they win? This article argues that inter-elite compromises reached in opposition pre-electoral alliances affect democratization after autocratic defeat in unexpected ways. Specifically, open bargains in opposition pre-electoral alliances in terms of the distribution of political offices and policy compromises constrain the governance flexibility of a newly victorious government post-elections. They restrict political elites from negotiating alternative solutions when new information or new political realities arise. When new governments attempt to deviate from these pre-electoral commitments, a disenchanted public arises. The collapse in public support opens multiple doors for the ex-dominant autocratic incumbent to return to executive power. This paper illustrates the arguments empirically by comparing how opposition victories in similarly unprecedented electoral turnovers in 2018 Malaysia and 1986 Philippines lead to divergent outcomes in political stability and authoritarian comebacks. Tentative findings from the case of DPJ's victory in Japan from 2009-2012 will also be shared.

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